petes nuxalk pics 09.11.07

Questions

Who, What, Why, Which, etc…

In English most question words begin with “WH” :what, who, where, when, where, whence, whose.

Nuxalk translations of all these words all end in -ks or -iks:

Stamks? What?
Waks? Who?
Wikaks? Where?
Pacwicks? When?
Alatsicwiks? How/Why?
Kaks? Why?
Inutnuks? What did you say?
Inutnuks? What did you say?
Maask’iks? How many?
Ustamnuks? Where are you going?

Nuxalk words ending in -ks,  -iks always function as predicates. They take the first place in a sentence, and some of them can have personal endings before the element -ks, -iks.

WHO

Waks ti imlk t’ayc? Who is this man?
Ustamnuks? Where are you going?
Wanuks? Who are you?
Ustamnawks? Where are they going?
Wanawks? Who are the?
Ustamks lha cnas ilha7ilh? Where is that woman going?
Wats’iks? Who am I?
Wanuks? Who are you?
Waks ts’ayc Who is she?
Walh7iks? Who are we?
Wanap’iks? Who are you? (to many)
Wanawks ats? Who are these people?

WHAT

Inutts’iks? What did I say?
Inutnuks? What did you say?
Inut’iks? What did he say?
Inutilh7iks? What did we say?
Inutap’iks? What did you say? (to many)
Inutawks? What did they say?

WHERE

Ustamts’iks? Where am I going?
Ustamnuks? Where are you going?
Ustamks t’ayc? Where is he (here) going?
Ustamlh7iks? Where are we going?
Ustamap’iks? Where are you goig? (to many)
Ustamnawks? Where are they going?